艺术家列表 Artist List
哈罗德 · 科恩 Harold Cohen
弗里德 · 纳克 Frieder Nake
薇拉 · 莫尔纳 Vera Molnar
曼弗雷德 · 莫尔 Manfred Mohr
王郁洋 Wang Yuyang
随着20世纪60年代中期数字技术的蓬勃发展,新的艺术实践也开始涌现。艺术家利用算法和生成技术创造新图像与新形式,由此拓展了视觉艺术的边界。他们发明了新的媒介以表达自己对新世界的看法,在这个新世界中,计算机渗透进人们生活的各个方面,而1956年被约翰·麦卡锡命名为“人工智能”的技术,成为了21世纪公众讨论的中心话题之一。
20世纪60至70年代,弗里德·纳克、薇拉·莫尔纳、曼弗雷德·莫尔、哈罗德·科恩等欧洲与美国的先驱艺术家们,开始使用编码程序与原始绘图仪生产图像与绘画,并制作了首部由计算机生成的影片。这些创举标志着一个新的视觉领域的出现,结合了艺术的感性与计算编程的方法论。一种当时被称为“计算机艺术”的全新媒介诞生了;计算机成为了这次数字先锋运动的“调色板”。部分灵感来自德国哲学家马克斯·本泽(1910—1990),他于1954年完成巨著《美学》,提出运用数学定理进行艺术创作,并于1974年在加拉加斯艺术博物馆策划了展览“计算机的艺术”。可以发现,在这段百花齐放的计算机艺术史的开端,由计算机生成的艺术作品大多使用纸本、布面等较为传统和学院派的媒介,从而实现了对其非物质性的“再物质”过程,有条不紊而意义深远。艺术家们也同时提出了一种悖论:非物质在本质上也是物质。

Starting in the mid-1960s, new artistic practices have emerged alongside the development and proliferation of digital technology. Using algorithms and generativity to create new forms and images, artists have pushed the borders of the visual arts. They have invented a new medium to express their visions of a new world, one in which computers have become the companion to everyone’s life and activities—and in which Artificial Intelligence, a term first coined in 1956 by John McCarthy, has become a central topic of twenty-first-century public debate.
Pioneering artists in Europe and the US, such as Frieder Nake, Vera Molnar, Manfred Mohr, and Harold Cohen, first developed, between 1960 and 1970, graphic drawings and canvases produced by coded programs and printed by primitive plotters, as well as the first computer-made films. This marked the emergence of a new visual world, which combined the emotionality of artistic sensitivity with the methodologies of computing programming. A new medium, which was then called “computer art,” was born. The computer became the palette of this digital avant-garde. They were partly inspired by German philosopher Max Bense (1910-1990), author of the 1954 landmark tome Aesthetica, who proposed the use of mathematical theorems to create art, and curated, in 1974, an exhibition entitled “Art by Computer” at the Museum of Fine Arts in Caracas. One can observe, in this opening salvo of computing art history, the launch of a systematic and meaningful re-materialization of the immateriality of computer-generated artworks, as these works were produced in more traditional, academic media, such as paper or canvas. These artists thereby propose a paradox: isn’t the immaterial fundamentally material?
黑阳 Jerome Neutres
艺术家列表 Artist List
彼得 · 科格勒 Peter Kogler
池田亮司 Ryoji Ikeda
里奥 · 维拉瑞尔 Leo Villareal
约翰 · 杰勒德 John Gerrard
查尔斯 · 桑迪森 Charles Sandison
卡西 · 瑞斯 Casey Reas
米歇尔 · 布雷 Michel Bret &
艾德蒙·库绍 Edmond Couchot
米格尔 · 舍瓦利耶 Miguel Chevalier
劳伦特 · 米尼奥诺 Laurent Mignonneau &
克利斯塔·佐梅雷尔 Christa Sommerer
凯林 · 布里克 Celyn Bricker &
芦明一 Faye Lu
丹尼尔 · 罗津 Daniel Rozin
埃利亚斯 · 克雷斯潘 Elias Crespin
艾伦 · 拉斯 Alan Rath
艺术家有时会根据程序的生成性提出无限的艺术形式。在这些2.0版本的艺术作品中,我们永远不会看到重复的图像:作品永远在变化,甚或经历数百万次的变奏——艺术走向了无限。因此,这种实践模式有着真正非物质的物质性,即不断自我再生的作品的非物质性。在卡西·瑞斯、约翰· 杰勒德、里奥·维拉瑞尔、埃利亚斯·克雷斯潘和艾伦·拉斯的作品中,程序从不停歇,展出恒常持续。而对于池田亮司、查尔斯·桑迪森等艺术家来说,对编程语言的视觉质感与特性的执迷是其作品的核心。在他们的创作中,作品的生成性成为主题,艺术因此成为一种无限的体验,作品则反映出制作艺术的过程。这种如有机物一般不断演化的艺术仿佛具有了自身的神经系统,若果真如此,计算机艺术是否生成了某种人工的自然?值得注意的是,自然也是生成艺术作品中反复出现的重要主题。米歇尔·布雷与艾德蒙·库绍、米格尔·舍瓦利耶、劳伦特·米尼奥诺与克利斯塔·佐梅雷尔的作品中加入了互动的维度,使观众成为了艺术品的共同作者。在这里,观者同时也是绘画的创作者,这与马塞尔·杜尚在数十年前提出的宣言不谋而合。

The generativity of programs at times leads artists to propose forms of unlimited art. In these Artworks 2.0, the image we are watching is never twice the same; the work is always changing, sometimes through millions of variations—art moving towards infinity. This mode of practice, therefore, has the sole claim to truly immaterial materiality, the immateriality of perpetually self-regenerating works. In the art of Casey Reas, John Gerrard, Leo Villareal, Elias Crespin, and Alan Rath, the program cannot stop, and the show always goes on. A fascination for the visual textures and characteristics of coding languages becomes the core of some works, such as those of Ryoji Ikeda or Charles Sandison. Here, the generativity of the artwork becomes its main subject. Art is thus an unlimited experience, and the work is a mirror of the art-making process. Evolving like organic material, it is art with a nervous system. If this is true, does computing art generate an artificial nature? It is noteworthy that nature is a recurrent and significant subject of generative artworks. Adding an interactive dimension, works by Michel Bret & Edmond Couchot, Miguel Chevalier, and Laurent Mignonneau & Christa Sommerer situate the visitor as a co-author of the artwork. Here, the viewer is the one making the painting, echoing Marcel Duchamp’s visionary declaration decades ago of this very same principle.
黑阳 Jerome Neutres
艺术家列表 Artist List
米歇尔 · 佩桑 Michel Paysant
刘娃 Liu Wa
莱昂内尔 · 莫拉 Leonel Moura
梅莫 · 阿克腾 Memo Akten
人工智能的概念诞生于1956年,机器人艺术先驱尼古拉·舍费尔曾在同一年展望未来:“从今往后,艺术家的角色不再是创造作品,而是创造‘创造’本身。” 如今,艺术家对复杂的算法与机器学习技术游刃有余。计算机提供了一种对艺术敏感,能够解读图像、识别视觉效果并生产形式的人工智能。莱昂内尔·莫拉创造了能够生成艺术作品的人工助手,进一步推动了他的创新研究。米歇尔·佩桑使用复杂的眼动追踪技术将绘画从(天生不完美的)双手中解放出来:人工智能成为了艺术家理想的助手,能够完美地实现他们的视觉幻梦。对于这些自动化的机器人装置,我们可以说艺术家真正的杰作——他们的核心作品——是工作室本身。而新近计算机设备越发具有的艺术潜能,也提出了一个尤为深刻的问题:我们是否已经实现了人工想象?梅莫·阿克腾向我们展示了深度学习程序何以呈现一部视觉化的“60分钟万物简史”,并以此作为自己的作品标题。人工想象究竟是想象力的升级版本,还是另一种新型人类想象力的物质化过程?

In a visionary statement from 1956, the same year the concept of artificial intelligence was born, pioneer of robotic art Nicolas Schöffer said, “From now on, the role of the artist will no longer be to create a work, but to create creation.” 1 Today’s artists play with sophisticated algorithms and machine-learning techniques. Computers offer an artificial intelligence sensitive to art, capable of interpreting images, recognizing visuals, and producing forms. Leonel Moura creates artificial assistants to generate artworks that further his creative research. Michel Paysant uses complex eye-tracking technology to liberate drawing from the (naturally imperfect) hand: AI becomes the artist’s ideal assistant, able to perfectly materialize their visual dreams. For these robotic installations, one might say that the artist’s true masterpiece—their central work—is the studio itself. The greater artistic potential of recent computational devices raises a particularly profound question: have we now reached artificial imagination? Memo Akten shows how deep-learning programs can literally visualize A brief history of almost everything in 60 minutes, the title of his work here. Is this artificial imagination an Imagination 2.0, or is it the materialization of another, newer part of human imagination?
黑阳 Jerome Neutres
艺术家列表 Artist List
夸尤拉 Quayola
雷菲克 · 阿纳多尔 Refik Anadol
杨泳梁 Yang Yongliang
陆扬 Lu Yang
徐文恺 aaajiao
林科 Lin Ke
费亦宁 & 官承翰 Fei Yining & Chuck Kuan
如今的艺术家正在定义一个新时代。他们的实践日益从属于后数字时代的范畴,但又前所未有地将计算机视为自己作品的媒介与核心。夸尤拉和杨泳梁等艺术家将计算机“调色板”的潜力发挥至极,在印象派与中国山水等经典艺术杰作之间构建对话。雷菲克·阿纳多尔则犹如21世纪的耶罗尼米斯·博斯,生成了一个仿佛遥远梦幻星球般的想象世界——在不断变换的媒介背后,是永恒的艺术史。近年来,新一代的艺术家们开始质疑艺术创作对计算机的使用,甚至批判地看待数字技术在我们日常生活中的与日俱增。陆扬的作品便表达了对完全数字化的新世界的深深怀疑。
有趣的是,最尖锐的批判声音往往来自最依赖数字技术的艺术家。“如今机器可以轻易读取我们的思想甚至成为我们的思想,那么记忆与注意力将如何是好?为何我们要让这样的事情发生?”艺术家徐文恺问道,“如今我们都只是有蜂巢思维的机器人”。数字化的世界是否会生成人类的新篇章,又会是怎样一个场面?不可否认,世界的全部历史都正以数字资源的形式被书写和储存,尤以互联网和外部硬件为主。有朝一日我们是否会后悔把我们的记忆储存在自己的大脑之外?而面对大数据,人脑的未来又在何处?这个新时代的历史,正如计算机艺术的历史一样,才刚刚开始谱写。

Artists today are defining a new era. Their practices increasingly belong to a post-digital age, yet, more than ever, they employ computers as the medium and focal point of their work. Using the computing palette to its maximum potential, the artists Quayola and Yang Yongliang structure compelling dialogues with masterpieces of classical art, namely Impressionist painting and Chinese landscape, respectively. Like a Hiëronymus Bosch of the twenty-first century, Refik Anadol generates an imaginary world that resembles some distant, dreamlike planet—media evolve, but art history remains. In recent years, a new generation of artists have been questioning the use of computers in art—sometimes in a critical way—as well as the growing presence of the digital in our lives. Lu Yang’s work, for example, expresses a deep suspicion of this new, all-digital world.
It is interesting to note that the most mordant voices are often those that belong to digital-native artists. “Machines can now easily read and even become our minds. What then happens to memory and attention? And why do we allow this to happen?”, artist aaajiao asks. “Now that we have become bots, we are just one with the mind of the hive.” Is the digital world generating a new chapter of mankind? What will it look like? It is undeniable that the entire history of the world is now written and archived in digital structures, specifically the Internet and external hardware. Will we regret, one day, having stored our memories outside of our brains? What is the future of the human brain in the face of big data? The history of this new era, like the history of computing art, is just beginning to be written.
黑阳 Jerome Neutres