Q1
结合自身的创作,您认为“计算机艺术”应该如何定义?
How would you define "computing art" from the perspective of your work?


Q2
对于您利用计算机或算法创作的作品,您如何理解它们的物质性?
这些作品与数字或实体意义上的物质性之间有何关系?
How do you understand the materiality of your computational or algorithmic works, their relationships to digital and physical materialities?


Q3
您如何看待这些技术的未来,及其在艺术中的运用?
新技术将如何改变甚至重塑想象力和创造力的本质?
Where do you see the future of these technologies, their use in art, and how they will reshape the nature of imagination and creativity?
弗里德·纳克 Frieder Nake
曼弗雷德·莫尔 Manfred Mohr
王郁洋 Wang Yuyang
彼得·科格勒 Peter Kogler
池田亮司 Ryoji Ikeda
里奥·维拉瑞尔 Leo Villareal
约翰·杰勒德 John Gerrard
查尔斯·桑迪森 Charles Sandison
卡西·瑞斯 Casey Reas
米歇尔·布雷 Michel Bret &
艾德蒙·库绍 Edmond Couchot
米格尔·舍瓦利耶 Miguel Chevalier
劳伦特·米尼奥诺 Laurent Mignonneau &
克利斯塔·佐梅雷尔 Christa Sommerer
凯林·布里克 Celyn Bricker &
芦明一 Faye Lu
丹尼尔·罗津 Daniel Rozin
艾伦·拉斯 Alan Rath
米歇尔·佩桑 Michel Paysant
刘娃 Liu Wa
莱昂内尔·莫拉 Leonel Moura
夸尤拉 Quayola
杨泳梁 Yang Yongliang
陆扬 Lu Yang
徐文恺 aaajiao
林科 Lin Ke
费亦宁 Fei Yining &
官承翰 Chuck Kuan
弗里德·纳克
Frieder Nake
A1
我称这些通过计算机运行算法而产生的艺术为“算法艺术”。

I call works of art “algorithmic art” if they are generated by algorithms running on a computer.
A2
刚开始的时候,我只用专业墨水和高质量纸张进行创作,后来有一些作品是丝网印刷。现在我的作品要么是动态或者互动装置,要么是高清数码印刷。

When I began, I only used professional inks on high-quality paper. Later, some were done as silkscreen prints. Today, they are either dynamic or interactive installations, or high-quality digital prints.
A3
这个问题很难简短回答。一方面,这些技术的未来存在于传统的图像艺术中,但另一方面,我也能在公共空间的大型动态装置上看到它们的未来。前者让算法艺术与其他艺术形式能够相提并论,后者则关乎其自身的未来发展。当然,算法和数字技术迟早会被大多数艺术家以各种方式利用起来。这会如何影响甚至重塑想象力和创造力呢?数字化的理念已经开始弱化某些美学生产的过程。对于严肃的美学生产来说,算法(“编程”)甚至会起到更重要的作用。有朝一日,每部电影都会或多或少含有算法的部分。那么想象力呢?在文化的某些方面,数字化理念的存在会导向算法思维。因此,这也会引发一种基于算法思维的想象力。这并不是什么新鲜事,因为想象力是随着创作方式而发展的。我们的特殊贡献就在于,现在的作品和创作过程都基于数字计算。因此,一切事物都伴生着可计算性。

Hard to answer in short. I see the future, on the one hand, in the old traditions of graphic art. But, in speculating, I also see it in large, dynamic installations in public spaces. The first path is the recognition of algorithmic art as the same as any other kind of art; the second is the futuristic path. And, of course, algorithmic and digital techniques will be used in one way or another by the majority of artists, for certain purposes. How might this influence, or even reshape, imagination and creativity? The digital principle already plays a role in trivializing certain aesthetic processes. For serious aesthetic production, algorithmic work (“programing”) will play an even more important role. There will be no movie without some algorithmic components. What about imagination? The existence of the digital principle, in some parts of culture, leads to algorithmic thinking. This will, in consequence, lead to an algorithm-based form of imagination. There is nothing radically new about this, because imagination develops with the means of production. Our special contribution is that works and processes are now based on computation. Therefore, everything grows a computable double.
曼弗雷德·莫尔
Manfred Mohr
A1
自从1969年起,我一直只用计算机和相应的程序语言逻辑来进行创作。与计算机的对话是我作品中必不可少的一部分,也是对我自身想象力的激发,进而促成一个我称之为“高速视觉思考”的过程。这种激进的方法也可能无法得到确定的结果。我视其为一种身体和智力的延伸,一个在我的艺术创作过程中至关重要的部分。另外,我认为当一件作品在视觉上脱离了它的逻辑内涵,切实成为一个独立、艺术和抽象的实体,我的艺术追求才算真正完成。

Since 1969, I have worked exclusively with computers, and therefore with the logic of programing languages, to create art. The dialogue with the computer is an integral part of my work and a fascinating spur to my imagination, which culminates in a process that I call high-speed visual thinking. This radical approach leads to otherwise unobtainable results. I also see it as a physical and intellectual extension, an important aspect of the process of creating my art. On the other hand, I consider my artistic goal met when a finished work is visually disassociated from its logical content, when it can convincingly stand as an independent, artistic, abstract entity.
A2
我创作中的物质性可以通过不同的方式来看待和理解。代码是最本质和基础的组成部分,也是我的作品里看不见的抽象逻辑。计算机和机械绘图设备让这种逻辑通过不同的材料得以显现(包括纸张、画布、我称为“激光象形”的激光切割浮雕),或多或少以古典艺术的形式而呈现出来。另一种视觉化的过程是在一台连接LCD显示器的计算机上运行我的程序,产生出实时的、非重复性的动态图像。每方面都体现着我的艺术中一个可能的物质性形式。我有时会以聚合的三个阶段做类比:冰、液体和蒸汽;同理,数字艺术包含了物质性的不同阶段,即不同的表现形式。

The material aspect of my work can be seen and understood in different ways. The code, the essential and basic component, is the non-visual, abstract logic of my work. Computer and mechanical drawing devices visualize this logic in different materials (including paper, canvas, and laser cut-reliefs, which I call Laserglyphs), creating representations in more-or-less classical art forms. Another kind of visualization is real-time, non-repetitive moving images, in which my programs run on a computer linked to an LCD screen. Each aspect represents a possible form of materiality for my art. I sometimes compare this idea to the three states of aggregation: ice, liquid, and steam. Therefore, the idea of digital art encompasses different states of materiality, which is to say its representations.
A3
我们并不知道哪一种艺术潮流将引领我们进入未知的将来,但我们总会基于过去的经验而发展出新的观念,来塑造我们的思想和社会行为。算法与艺术表达的融合也不例外,它们反映着人类的智慧,并将继续存在。就我自身的经历而言,利用算法进行创作的这50余年,已经在根本上转变了我的思维和想象力,我也明白知识是不可逆转的。从定义来看,“艺术”反映着我们所处的时代,而我非常确信,在未来,许多艺术表达将继续以超乎想象的方式去拥抱算法和新技术。

We do not know which artistic developments and trends will guide us in the uncharted territories of the future, but we always will build on past experiences to develop new ideas that will shape our thinking and social behavior. The integration of algorithms into artistic expression is no exception; they reflect human intelligence and are here to stay. From my own experience, I can say that working with algorithms for fifty years has transformed my thinking and imagination profoundly. I also understand that knowledge is irreversible. Since, by definition, “art” reflects the time we live in, I am convinced that, in the future, many artistic expressions will continue to embrace algorithms and new technologies in astonishing ways.
王郁洋
Wang Yuyang
A1
计算机运用自己的逻辑创造的艺术。

Art that is made when the computer uses its own logic to create.
A2
应该说是计算机或算法利用我实现了他精神的物质性。

One should say that the computer or algorithm uses me to realize the materiality of its spirit.
A3
在未来,没有人会再追问为什么使用计算机去创作,因为这将成为常态。我们认为是我们创造了计算机,然而其实是计算机创造了我们,一切在不被察觉中进行。

In the future, no one will question why people use computers to make art, because it will be the norm. We believe that we created computers, yet it is them that created us, and everything unfolds without anyone noticing this.
彼得·科格勒
Peter Kogler
A1
我开始用计算机创作是在1984年苹果公司的首款Mac笔记本电脑问世时。这款新设备的操作十分简便,视觉语言也非常简洁,就像象形文字一样——我很喜欢这点。很显然,这会改变图像生成和传播的方式,带来标志性的转变。

I began to work with computers when the first Macintosh was introduced, in 1984. You could use this new technical device very intuitively, and the visual language was a very simple one, like pictograms—I liked that. It was clear that it would change the way images were generated and distributed. It was a paradigmatic shift.
A2
在我刚开始使用数字工具创作时,从计算机中获取图像的方法非常有限;当时还没有大规模印刷或3D雕刻技术,而如今的情况已经全然不同。在今天,每个生产环节都或多或少建立在数字信息的基础之上。这些年来,我的创作道路始终和技术发展保持着紧密的关联:20世纪80年代,我主要创作数字素描和类似油画的作品;到了90年代,我开始关注丝网模块的空间;之后又转向建筑立面和大型计算机动画的创作。虚拟的空间变成了真实的建筑。

When I started to work with digital tools, there were very limited options to get the image out of the computer; there was no large-scale printing or 3D sculpting whatsoever. The situation now is completely different. Today, more or less every production process is based on digital information. Over the years, my work was constantly expanding in a way that was closely interconnected with technical progress: in the 1980s, digital drawings and painting-like pieces; in the 1990s, spaces with silkscreen modules; and later, building facades and large-scale computer animations. Virtual spaces became real architecture.
A3
在万维网被发明初期,人们曾渴望一种高度民主、无阶级差别的媒介,每个人都能拥有获取信息和知识的渠道。但近年来我们逐渐意识到,这些新技术也使国际大型企业几乎对新兴的信息产业形成了垄断。社交媒体正在彻底改变我们对民主的看法。使用计算机意味着以某种方式和所有这些社会及经济发展产生联系,或许也意味着让其中的特定环节得以显现。

In the early years of the World Wide Web, there was the hope for a very democratic, non-hierarchical medium that might give everyone access to information and knowledge. Over the years, we have learned that these new technologies have led to big international companies with almost a monopoly on the new information industries. Social media is changing our notion of democracy in a radical way. To use the computer means to be somehow linked to all this social and economic development, and perhaps to make particular processes visible.
池田亮司
Ryoji Ikeda
A1
作为一名艺术家,我做的就是艺术。计算机和技术只是创作过程中的工具,就像在公司、银行或者医院工作的人会使用这些工具一样。在当代社会,什么都离不开计算机和技术。我不认为在艺术中运用计算机和技术有什么不寻常的,不然就意味着我们没有融入当代社会。对于商人来说,生意是他们的核心追求,而艺术家的核心追求就是艺术。因此,在艺术中强调或区分“计算机艺术”是有误导性的,对我来说,艺术就是艺术。
此外,我主要是一名作曲家。作为作曲家,与数字和数学结构打交道是很常见的,毕达哥拉斯也曾发现声音和数字之间存在一种原始的数学关系。在西方文化中,数学早在哲学(苏格拉底、柏拉图,等等)萌芽前就存在了。基于这个事实,我非常清楚自己在做什么。音乐在本质上是纯粹关于数学结构和运算的。声音是一种自然物理现象的属性,通过数学运算,音乐为声音赋予了艺术的生命。但是我们要明白,数学运算包括计算,都不一定需要计算机或者技术的实际参与。就像计算机和技术在数学运算中帮助我们一样,我也用同样的方式来进行创作。

As an artist, I’m doing art. Computers and technologies are merely tools to process and make artworks, in the same way that a person who works at a company, bank, or hospital might use them. Nothing works without computers and technology in contemporary society. I do not think it is unusual for us to use computers and technologies in art, as that would imply that we do not operate within contemporary society. The essential aim for businesspeople is the business itself; for artists, it is the art itself. Thus, emphasizing or categorizing “computing” in relation to art is misguided, or even misleading. To me, art is art.
In addition, I am primarily a composer. As a composer, playing with numbers and mathematical structures is quite natural, since Pythagoras discovered pristine mathematical relationships between sounds and numbers. Mathematics existed long before philosophy emerged in Western culture (Socrates, Plato, etc.). I am very conscious of what I am doing based on that fact. Music is, in essence, purely about mathematical structures and operations. Sounds are a property of the natural phenomena of physics. Music gives artistic life to sounds through mathematical operations. Be aware of the fact that mathematical operations, including computations, do not necessarily require actual computers or technologies. Computers and technologies aid us in mathematical operations; I create art in the same way.
里奥·维拉瑞尔
Leo Villareal
A1
我的作品主要将光的感知性和代码创造的序列结合在一起,这些创作都围绕着计算性的视觉表现而展开。光能让我更好地融入物质世界,也让我的作品超越了“艺术”的范畴。

My work is about combining the perceptual qualities of light with sequences created with code. The visual manifestation of computation is what my work is all about. Light allows me to engage the physical world, enabling the work to transcend into the realm of “art.”
A2
我认为自己是一名雕塑家,因为我会运用材料和空间来创造一些共享的体验。在我看来,重要的是将数码从屏幕中“拽”出来,让它们进入真实的物质世界中。观众对于这些混合体的反应也会给我带来震撼和惊喜。

I consider myself a sculptor in the way I use materials and engage space to create communal experience. It is important to me to drag the digital off the screen and out into the real world. It is quite powerful and surprising to see how audiences respond to these unique hybrids.
A3
整体来看,艺术家们正在使用新的技术工具是一件振奋人心的事。我们从未有过更好的方式来操控声音、图像和光。我很开心现在对于艺术家们来说软件已经变成了一种日常工具,也很期待有一天这些作品不会再被归类为“科技艺术”,而只是艺术。创造这种能够让成千上万的人参与的公共艺术非常令人激动,这在广泛的城市范围内开创了一种崭新的艺术形式。

It is exciting to see the broad level at which artists are using new technological tools. We have never had better ways of manipulating sound, image, and light. I like how software is becoming an everyday tool for artists and look forward to the day it is no longer categorized as “tech art,” just art. It is also thrilling to create public artworks that engage tens of millions of people, pioneering new formats on a vast urban scale.
约翰·杰勒德
John Gerrard
A1
我认为计算机是一种能够创造艺术的工具,因此我基本不会使用“计算机艺术”这样的词。毫无疑问,计算机对于塑造和回应当代状况有着与众不同的力量,但当代艺术中对这种力量的应用和体现如此罕见,令我深感惋惜。理想情况下,计算机科学和艺术专业的分野将日渐弥合,更丰富充分的交流与合作将会随之发生。

I consider the computer a tool that can give rise to art, and thus I do not use the term computing art, in general. Without a doubt, the computer is uniquely powerful to model and respond to contemporary conditions. I lament how rare the strong application of that power is within contemporary art. Ideally, the divisions between computer science and art academies might shrink and allow for more fruitful exchange and collaboration in time.
A2
我以往的作品通常是对现实中的地理位置的刻画,最近也开始在这些地点内创作拼贴和叠加的场景或对象。这些作品采用了软件的形式,软件以年度为单位运行着作品中的世界。这是一种完全被建构出来的、模拟的场景,由代码、模型和纹理组成。这些模拟影像可以被看作是新型的雕塑形态,往往出现在公共场所,因为LED墙面只能在大面积的完整建筑物上展示。这些作品并不作为建筑物的表面或荧幕,而是作为实物,强烈地闯入现有的场景——与数字技术入侵文化和社会领域如出一辙。因此,我坚持以某种可触可感的、雕塑的形式将作品展现于世。在此之外,这些作品中也都有特定物质的参与,比如汽油或二氧化碳,并以精确而实在的方式呈现出来,即使经过了人为的处理。例如,模拟让我们与烟雾的原理产生了新的联系,而这提供了一个绝佳的实验场所。

I typically produce portraits of found sites or, more recently, collaged and overlaid scenes and objects within sites. These works take the form of software, which executes the world of the work over an annual orbit. This is an entirely constructed, simulated scene, made up of code, model, and texture. These simulations can be considered sculptures of a new sort, and they exist often in the public domain as LED walls supported by monolithic cubes. The works are not presented as surfaces or screens, but as objects which strongly intrude upon the scene—as the digital does within culture and society. In that light, I typically insist on a tangible sculptural presence for the works in the world. Outside of that, the works very specifically engage with materials such as gasoline or carbon dioxide and represent them in physically accurate ways, albeit manipulated. Simulation allows a novel relation to the physics of smoke, for instance, and this aspect provides a wonderful site for experimentation.
A3
艺术家对自身所处的现实做出回应;这些现实如今在很大程度上被技术调解着,而新冠疫情导致的健康危机看似加速着这一进程。据我推测,沉浸在技术中的艺术家将会对这些技术进行更广泛的利用。至于他们的回应会像创作影像或图像一样关乎媒介,还是像建模世界一样更关注技术性,则取决于艺术家对计算机编程的熟悉程度。我认为虚拟和模拟将在未来的想象力中发挥举足轻重的作用,而艺术教育很可能通过将过去的图像转化为技术基础来构筑想象力。

Every artist responds to the realities in which they find themselves. And those realities now are strongly technically mediated. The health crisis of Covid-19 seems to accelerate this process. I suspect that artists will make greater use of the technologies in which they are immersed. Getting back to my first response, the degree to which this is a media response, as in producing video or image, or a more technical one, as in modelling the world, depends on the degree to which artists access computer coding. I imagine that virtuality and simulation will have a strong role to play in imaginations of the future, and arts education can likely frame that imagination through the degree to which it gets past image to something more technically fundamental.
查尔斯·桑迪森
Charles Sandison
A1
我从12岁的时候就开始写代码,到现在已经将近40年。对我来说,写代码已经变成了一种冥想方式。起初,这是一种让我整理思路的方法,也让我能够利用算法去理解生活的复杂性。我的第一台计算机就像一个智囊:我可以问它任何问题。我当时最喜欢和概率相关的主题,从赌博到博弈论都很感兴趣。我和视觉艺术正式结缘是从做画家开始的。后来我意识到,对我来说,绘画和编写代码属于同一个思维空间。过了一段时间,我就开始用纯代码替代传统的绘画方式了。

I have been coding since I was twelve years old, so almost forty years. For me, it has become a form of meditation. From the beginning, it was a way to organize my thoughts and understand the complexities of life using algorithms. My first computer was like an oracle: I could ask it questions. My favorite subject was probability, from gambling to game theory. I began my formal relationship with visual art as a painter. I later understood that drawing and painting, for me, existed in the same mental space as writing computer code. After a while, I was able to replace the traditions of classical art with pure code.
A2
一直以来,我都在用最纯粹的方法来探索使用计算机创造艺术的潜力。即使不能定义什么是计算机艺术,我也知道我想用计算机来创造一些其他艺术形式无法创造的东西。我并不想把计算机作为一种美化过的虚拟画笔来使用,我也对模仿现有的媒介不感兴趣。我在最开始的挑战是从传统艺术媒介(具有物质性的本质,比如绘画和雕塑)的世界转移到纯概念的、非物质的代码宇宙。在20世纪90年代初期,我转向了视频投影,以此邀请观众进入我语言和思想的数字生态系统。我对洞穴艺术和史前艺术是所有视觉艺术的开端这个观点非常感兴趣;数字艺术是它们的延续,现在的洞穴是虚拟的。

I have always had a purist approach to the potentials of using computers to make art. Even though I could not define what computer art was, I knew I wanted to use the computer to make something that no other art form could create. I did not want to use the computer as a glorified virtual paintbrush; I was not interested in simulating existing media. My initial challenge was moving from the world of traditional art media (which are essentially physical objects, like paintings or sculptures) into the purely conceptual, immaterial universe of code. In the early 1990s, I turned to video projection as way to give the audience access to my digital ecosystems of language and thought. I am extremely interested in the idea of the cave and prehistoric art as a starting point for all visual art. Digital art is a continuum; the cave is now virtual.
A3
我坚信当代艺术家有责任去掌握甚至“主宰”新兴技术。数字化社会中逐渐增加的复杂性在用户、技术和社会之间创造了鸿沟。艺术家们应该掌控、颠覆和利用这些平台来创造一种“幻象哲学”。还未完全成型的虚拟现实对于艺术家来说是一种潜在的未来发展方向,我希望会有更多的机会让新一代艺术家去了解并学习如何使用代码。艺术院校应该为学生提供应对数字化社会的有效工具和方法,而他们目前还做得远远不够。

I strongly believe that contemporary artists have a responsibility to take “ownership” of emergent technologies. The increasing complexity of digital society creates a wide chasm between users, technology, and society. Artists should colonize, subvert, and utilize these platforms to create a “philosophy of the phantasm.” Virtual reality, in some yet-to-exist form, is a potential future for artists. I hope there will be more chances for a new generation of artists to learn more about code and how to use it. Current academies of art are generally falling behind in their responsibility to equip students with the relevant tools to react to digital society.vant tools to react to digital society.
卡西·瑞斯
Casey Reas
A1
我喜欢用“软件”这个词来讨论我的作品。软件是我作品的媒介,就像视频、影像和颜料这些媒介一样。软件可以被用在网页浏览器中,也可以是任何电脑上都能运行的某个应用。游戏艺术和网络艺术都属于软件艺术,是这个更大范围下的门类;除此之外,软件艺术还包括视听表演、互动装置等许多其他的类型。
我也会用“代码”这个词。代码是一种用于开发软件的语言指令。就像音符和声音被用来创作音乐,代码是用来编写软件的。学习代码也是在学习对系统进行思考。
就某些方面而言,软件是一种特殊的媒介。它有一种独特的时间关系,会随着时间而发生变化;这种媒介既可以被执行,也可以自我执行。与在观众眼中会产生变化的绘画不同,软件更像是一个舞者:它是持续活动的;和按照一定顺序展现一系列画面的影像和视频不同,软件既可以实时生成新的图像,也可以按照任何顺序展示它们。这就是软件的运转机制,通过这种机制可以创造出和其他任何媒介都不同的体验。

I like to use the word “software” to discuss my work. Software is the medium of the work, in the way that video, film, and paint are media. Software can be found within a web browser, and it can be an application running on any kind of computer. Game art and net art are both categories of the larger domain of software art. There are many other types of software art as well, from audiovisual performances to interactive installations.
I use the word “code” too. Code is a type of writing that creates software. Just as notes or sounds are composed to make music, code is used to compose software. Learning to code is learning to think about systems.
Software is a unique medium in a few ways. It has a different relationship to time. It is a medium that can be performed, and it can perform itself. Unlike a painting that changes in the eye of the viewer, software is more like a dancer: it is continuously in action. Unlike film and video, which display a sequence of frames in the same order, software can both generate new images live and display them in any sequence. These are the mechanics of software, which create kinds of experiences that are different than those other media offer.
A2
软件是一种概念上的媒介,作为无形的观念而存在,但它需要和物质性的元素相结合才能被感知。软件通常通过投影仪或者屏幕产生光亮,光是物质的,但与其他更加物质的媒介不同。软件也可以被用来控制实体的媒介,几乎任何“机械化”的东西都要通过软件输入外界信息和控制发动机。我以一名视觉艺术家的身份使用软件,其他人也用软件做不同的事情。软件既可以产生声音和音乐,也可以形成文字。

Software is a conceptual medium that exists as an idea without form, but it need to be paired with physical elements to be experienced. Software often generates light, either through a projector or a screen. Light is material, but in a different way than other, more physical, media. Software can also be used to control physical media. Nearly everything that is “robotic” has a software element that brings in information from the world and controls the motors. I use software as a visual artist, but others use it for different ends. Software can generate sound and music, and it can compose text.
A3
如果回顾一下艺术家使用软件的历史,我们就会发现在至少在一百多年前就已经铺垫了理论基础。20世纪60年代的时候,艺术家们开始直接使用软件进行创作。编写新软件的代码已经成为了他们创作过程的一部分。软件最先触及的媒介是绘画和电影,现在已经深入到了摄影、视频和雕塑中,甚至很多画家也开始利用软件打稿。我进行了大量阅读和思考,关于摄影的出现如何在19世纪改变了绘画,二者又是如何互相影响的。我认为新兴的机器学习代码和相关的硬件可能也拥有同样巨大的影响力。虽然我现在还无法看出或得知机器学习到底会如何影响视觉艺术的未来,但感觉这将是一个重大的转变。现在我已经使用机器学习进行创作三年了。另外,互联网和万维网也在持续地演进,网络在重塑艺术格局的过程中拥有最大的潜力,也很可能会对创造力产生重要影响。

If you look back at the history of software as used by artists, we see the conceptual groundwork laid for more than one hundred years, at a minimum. In the 1960s, artists began to work with software directly. They wrote code to create new software as a part of the process of creating their work. The first media that software touched were drawing and film. Now, software is deeply embedded in photography, video, and sculpture. Even painters use it to sketch. I think and read a lot about how the introduction of photography changed painting in the nineteenth century and how they influenced each other. I think emerging machine-learning code and the hardware that supports it might have an impact of this magnitude. I cannot see it right now, and I do not know how machine learning will influence the future of the visual arts, but it feels like a major shift. I have been working with it for the last three years now. Additionally, the Internet and the World Wide Web continue to evolve. They have the most potential for reshaping art distribution, which will likely have a strong impact on creativity.
米歇尔·布雷 & 艾德蒙·库绍
Michel Bret & Edmond Couchot
A1
米歇尔·布雷:
我从20世纪50年代开始艺术创作,最初是一名画家。因为之前学的是数学,所以当我70年代在法国遇到埃尔韦·于特里克和莫妮克·纳哈斯等数字艺术先驱时,计算机对我来说已经是必不可少的。从那时起,算法思维就一直引导着我的研究。我的研究成果以计算机语言和编译器(anyflo.com)的方式呈现,我将它提供给我认为在这一领域比较活跃和重要的艺术家。当时的问题已经不再是如何创作一个物体或对象(作品),而是如何创造一种能够创造作品的系统(元创作)。

艾德蒙·库绍:
我更偏向于称之为“数字艺术”而不是“计算机艺术”,“计算机艺术”这个词对机器过于强调了。对我来说,在我的理论和实践工作中,“数字艺术”远比一项技术丰富得多,它是一种观看世界的真实视角,甚至是一种哲学。举例来说,互动性让观众参与艺术创作成为了可能,这完全改变了作者、作品和观者之间的关系。

Michel Bret:
I started as a painter in the 1950s. Having studied mathematics, the computer was already essential to me when I met, in the 1970s, the pioneers of digital art in France, like Hervé Huitric and Monique Nahas. From then on, algorithmic thinking guided my research. This took the form of a language and a compiler (anyflo.com), which I offered to artists whom I considered active and important in the field. It was no longer a question of creating objects (works), but systems that allow for creative work (meta-creation).

Edmond Couchot:
I prefer to talk about digital art rather than computing art, a term that puts too much emphasis on the machine. For me, in my practical and theoretical work, digital art is much more than a technology; it is a real vision of the world, even a kind of philosophy. Interactivity, for example, which makes it possible to participate in the creation of art, totally changes the relationship between the author, the work, and the spectator.
A2
米歇尔·布雷:
这种所谓的数字的非物质性其实只是一种错觉:神经脉冲在我们大脑中穿梭并控制我们的行为,算法并不比神经脉冲更加物质或者非物质,而且很明显,机器和我们的身体一样物质。无论是传统艺术还是数字艺术,都会产生信号,经由感官被我们接收,然后影响我们的神经网络,引起感觉、情绪和情感。反过来,我大多数的互动装置都用到了人工神经网络,这些人工神经网络经过自主学习的训练后,可以生成无法预料但又非常连贯的人工行为(即兴创作)。

艾德蒙·库绍:
计算机系统内运行的算法并不是非物质的,而是一种虚拟语言的元素。不过,这种虚拟具体指向的并不是非物质性,而是其虚拟的潜能。虚拟和现实互相作用,这就是为什么观众(真实的)呼吸可以影响到出现在屏幕上的(虚拟的)蒲公英。

Michel Bret:
The so-called immateriality of the digital is only a delusion: algorithms are neither more nor less material than the waves of nerve impulses traversing our brains and controlling our actions, and machines are obviously as material as our bodies. Art, whether traditional or digital, produces signals that we receive through our sense organs, and which act on our neural networks causing sensations, emotions, and feelings. Conversely, I have used, in most of my interactive installations, artificial neural networks, trained by unsupervised learning, capable of generating unpredictable, yet coherent artificial behaviors (improvisation).

Edmond Couchot:
The algorithms that work inside computer systems are not immaterial; they are elements of a virtual language. However, the specificity of the virtual is not in immateriality, but in potential. The virtual acts on the real, and the real acts on the virtual. This is why the (real) breath of a spectator can act on (virtual) dandelions that appear on a screen.
A3
米歇尔·布雷:
有了人工智能以后,艺术家的角色不会再是唯一的造物者。他们将需要和其他以机器形式存在的、有感觉能力的智能生物打交道。比如说,电影一定会变成交互的;剧场中,人造人和自然人演员将会同台,舞蹈中也会加入杂技机器人的参与;文学,甚至科学,也可能会由机器人谱写。这些新的产物并不只是为了模仿人类,而是为了创造更多、也更容易被我们感知的想象。 艾德蒙·库绍: 数字技术现在已经遍布了几乎全部的人类活动,包括智力活动,如果这个世界不会自我毁灭的话。几乎没有任何活动可以脱离数字技术。但是在艺术领域,我们仍然可以用画笔和颜料来绘画。现在,有很多在表演艺术(舞蹈、喜剧、音乐会、歌剧、木偶戏等)方面的研究开始关注作品中机器人和人造人(虚拟化身、虚拟演员)的参与,和他们与真人表演者的关系。这种人类与机器的合作也是一种自动装置表演的传统,其历史可以追溯到古希腊。这些作品让我们关注到新的人类物种(一种共生物种)的产生,也教会我们这些自然人如何与他们相处。

Michel Bret:
With artificial intelligence, the artist’s role will no longer be that of a demiurge, the sole deity of creation. They will have to deal with other intelligent, sensitive creatures in the form of machines. For example, cinema will certainly become interactive. The theater will stage artificial and human actors together. Dance will integrate acrobatic robots. Literature, and even science, may be written by robots. These new speakers will aim not to imitate humans, but to invent other imaginaries, to which we will become sensitive.

Edmond Couchot:
Digital technologies are set to spread to almost the entire sphere of human activities, including intellectual activities, if the world does not destroy itself. Few activities will escape digital technologies. But in the field of art, we will still be able to paint with brushes and pigments. At present, much of the research in the performing arts (dance, theater, concerts, opera, puppets, etc.) is concerned with the integration of robots and artificial human beings (avatars, virtual actors) in works where they are brought into contact with natural humans. They are thus part of the tradition of automaton shows, which date back to the Greeks. These works draw our attention to the emergence of a new human species, a kind of co-species, and teach us natural humans to live with them.
米格尔·舍瓦利耶
Miguel Chevalier
A1
在我的数字艺术实践中,有大量探索生成性的空间。计算机是一种极其严谨的工具,你叫它重复形状,它就会重复这些形状;当你加入变量,它就会创造成千上万种组合。将随机性引入一种高度组织化的结构中,会创造出我们从未想象过的形态。
拥有生成性的艺术作品可以随时发生变化。这与循环播放的影像视频全然不同,一件生成式的作品没有明确的起止。此外,我的绝大部分作品都是交互的,通过传感器产生互动性的直观形态,很容易就能被公众理解。这也涉及观众的亲身参与,以及他们在空间中的移动性。互动性解放了观众,让他们得以探索艺术作品的一切可能性。

In my digital art practice, I dedicate a lot of space to the exploration of generativity. The computer is an extremely rigorous tool. If you ask it to repeat shapes, it will repeat shapes. If you introduce variables, the computer will create thousands of combinations. The introduction of randomness into a highly organized structure will create shapes we never imagined.
With generativity, the artwork can change at any time. It is very different from video that repeats itself in loops. A generative artwork has no beginning nor end. Most of my works are also interactive. Through sensors, I develop intuitive shapes of interactivity, those which are easily understood by the public. This physically involves the body and its mobility in space. Interactivity frees the viewer to explore all the possibilities of the artwork.
A2
如今,现实与虚拟不断彼此渗透,整个世界都通过互联网这种即时传播的庞大数据库而联系起来。新技术已经触发了经济和社会的剧变,开创着新的交流途径、新的语言形式,以及全新的时空概念。在我看来,虚拟显然已经是一种最佳媒介,用以解码我们所生活的世界,以及网络、流动、城市扩张等非物质方面的概念。
我的大部分作品都建立在非物质性的概念基础之上。如果我用光进行创作,我会探索如何用这种介质来转换物理空间和建筑,以及如何以此影响观众的身体和心理感觉。我试图创作多感官的沉浸式装置,为观众带来一种与众不同的全新审美体验。

Today, reality and virtuality constantly interpenetrate. The entire world is connected via the Internet, a huge, instantly transmissible database. New technologies have sparked economic and social upheavals, initiating new ways of organizing exchanges, new forms of language, and new concepts of space and time. It became obvious to me that virtuality was the best medium to transcribe the world that we live in and the immaterial aspect of notions such as networks, flows, and urban sprawl.
Most of my artworks are based on the concept of immateriality. If I work with light, I explore how I can transform physical space and architecture with this medium and how I can modify the physical and mental sensations of visitors. I try to create immersive, multi-sensory installations that give visitors a new and unusual aesthetic experience.
A3
技术时刻都在发展。显卡正在变得越来越强大,开启着不可思议的想象力舞台。同时,视频投影仪的质量在逐年提升,让我们得以创作更大规模、更沉浸式的装置。
在未来几年,我想象艺术家会把更多兴趣转向人工智能在各个创意领域的可能性:油画、素描、雕塑、音乐、电影、建筑、设计和平面。
如果我们回顾自19世纪末以来的绘画史,会看到一系列朝向极简主义的绘画实验。数字艺术家把他们的艺术推向了一种无限的美学。另外,借助3D打印,数字世界能够以实体形态而存在。你几乎可以在一瞬间直接从虚拟来到现实,这是雕塑界的一个革命性进程。

Technologies are evolving all the time. Graphics cards are becoming more and more powerful, opening uncanny scenes of imagination. Also, the quality of video projectors improves each year, allowing us to create bigger and more immersive installations.
In the coming years, I imagine that artists will become more interested in the possibilities of AI, in all creative fields: painting, drawing, sculpture, music, cinema, architecture, design, and graphics.
If we look at the history of painting since the end of the nineteenth century, we have seen a series of experiments that have gradually shifted painting toward minimalism. Digital artists push their art toward an aesthetics of infinity. On the other hand, with 3D printers, digital universes can exist physically. You go from the virtual to the real almost directly and instantaneously. It is a revolutionary process in the world of sculpture.
劳伦特·米尼奥诺 & 克利斯塔·佐梅雷尔
Laurent Mignonneau & Christa Sommerer
A1
我们觉得我们的艺术实践跟“计算机艺术”的发展和历史是紧密相关的。这段历史并不是很长,一些早期的先驱都还在世。在过去的50年里,计算机艺术发生了很多变化。在20世纪60年代,这种艺术基本都是有权限使用大型计算机并且能够自己编程的工程师在做。80年代中期到90年代早期的计算机艺术也只是处在发展初期。志同道合的计算机艺术先驱们当时拥有一个紧密联系的小集体。但是当时的艺术圈对于这种新的艺术形式非常怀疑,他们并不相信计算机艺术能够成为一种真正的艺术形式。我们在90年代使用电脑的途径非常有限,只有在专门的研究中心工作,才能接触到高端的图形计算机。我们不得不自己编程,而且大部分交互技术也是我们自己搭建和完成的。
2000年左右,随着计算机变得更加普及也更加便宜,媒体艺术又发生了变化。个人电脑、DIY手工文化,还有开源社区的发展让更多的艺术家和工程师加入了这个领域。那时还出现了很多媒体艺术节,一些高校也开始教授媒体艺术课程。到了2020年,“计算机艺术”已经成为了主流,而且毋庸置疑的是,艺术家们对数字技术的使用已经和其他材料和方法一样普遍了。
在我们自己的作品中,利用计算机编程和交互技术是一种常态。过去30年来,我们一直在制作交互系统,通过系统中的互动参数创造出开放式的艺术作品。我们对于这种需要公众参与的、不断变化和发展的艺术作品非常感兴趣。我们的灵感来源于彼得·魏贝尔提出的概念“虚拟性—变化性—可行性”和翁贝托·埃科提出的“开放的艺术作品”。

We see our art practice as strongly linked to the history and development of computing art. This history is not that long, and several of the early pioneers are still alive. In the past fifty years, computer art has changed a lot. In the 1960s, this type of art mostly was practiced by engineers who had access to mainframe computers and could program these machines by themselves. When we entered the field of computer art in the mid-1980s and early 1990s, it was still in its infancy. It was a small, tightly knit community of computer art pioneers who shared the same vision and enthusiasm. However, the art community was strangely skeptical about this new form. They didn’t believe that computer art would become a real art form unto itself. For production, our access to computers was very limited in the early 1990s. One had to work at a dedicated research center to get access to high-end graphic computers. We had to program them ourselves, and most of the interface technology had to be constructed in-house.
Around the year 2000, media art changed again, as computers became more accessible and affordable. The spread of the PC, DIY culture, and open-source communities enabled more artists and engineers to join the field as well. Many media art festivals opened, and university programs teaching media art were founded. By 2020, computer art has become mainstream, and there is no doubt that artists can use digital technologies in the same way as any other material or method.
In our own art, the use of computer programming and interface technology is a constant. For thirty years, we have been creating interactive systems where the interaction parameters lead to an open-ended artwork. We are interested in artworks that are constantly changing and developing, those that the public engages. We are inspired by Peter Weibel’s concept of Virtuality-Variability-Viability and Umberto Eco’s idea of the Open Art Work.
A2
我们对于打破物质世界和数字世界的边界非常感兴趣,并且在很多作品中都开发了直观的互动装置,观众每做出一个具体动作或运动,都会产生一个数字化转译的结果。我们在1992年做的第一件互动艺术作品《互动植物栽培》就是其中的一个例子。在这件作品中,观众对真实植物的触摸会引发投影在大屏幕上的数码植物生长。在这件作品中,不会直观看到计算机技术的存在,植物变成了数字世界的接口,捕捉着观众的身体张力并将其转换到数字领域之中。在另一件1994年的作品《A-Volve》中,观众可以通过触摸屏幕来创造形状。然后这些形状会“活”起来,在一个真正充满水的大泳池中游动,观众可以在水里触摸这些“生物”,帮助它们繁殖。在这件作品中,水的物质性和这些“生物”的数字性本质相互融合。在2017年的作品《空中的苍蝇》中,我们使用了增强现实技术(AR)来连接虚拟世界和物质世界。现在,这种模拟物和数字世界的混合体变得非常常见,因为随着增强现实在生活中的普及,两者的边界逐渐消失了。这也正是早期的“计算机艺术”所追求、塑造和预想的愿景。

We are very interested in overcoming the boundaries between the physical and digital worlds. In many of our works, we develop intuitive interactions where a concrete motion or physical movement of the participant leads to a digitally translated outcome. One such example is our first interactive art work, Interactive Plant Growing, from 1992. Here, the visitors’ physical touching of real plants in the installation leads to the growth of digital plants on a large projection screen. There is no computer technology visible; it is the plant that becomes the interface to the digital world. The plant captures the participants’ bodily tension and translates this into the digital realm. In another installation, A-Volve, from 1994, visitors create shapes on a touch screen. These shapes then “come to life”: they live and swim in a large pool filled with real water. Participants can touch these “creatures” in the water and help them reproduce. Here, the physicality of the water and the digital nature of the creatures blend together. In Flies in the Sky from 2017, we use augmented reality to connect virtual and physical space. Today, this hybridization of analog and digital worlds has become common, as our lives are increasingly augmented and the boundary between the two disappears. This is a vision that early computer art pioneered, shaped, and predicted.
A3
现在数字技术已经渗透到了生活的各个方面。从银行、医药、购物、交通、商业和工业到设计和艺术,几乎我们生活的所有方面都在被互联网植入并紧密相连。无处不在的计算机运算成为了我们的现实,也带领我们进入了一个新的海量数据时代。对于艺术和创造力来说,这也是一个关键的领域:我们该如何负责任地使用这些数据,又该如何设计出一个能够让我们感知到这些日常互动的创意系统?通过将传感技术和媒体艺术相结合,我们可以提出一个有意义的人道主义系统,助力人类的创造力,提醒我们关注环境、人际关系以及人与自然的关系。作为媒体艺术家,我们有太多需要关注的领域了,现在的一切还只是开始。

We now see digital technologies spilling over into all aspects of our lives. From banking, medicine, shopping, transport, business, and industry to design and art, almost all aspects of our lives are becoming augmented and connected to the Internet. Ubiquitous computing has become our reality. This also leads to the generation of massive amounts of data. Here lies an important area for art and creativity: how will we use these data responsibly, and how can we design creative systems that make us aware of our daily interactions? By linking sensory technologies and media art, we have the power to propose meaningful, humanistic systems that help human creativity and make us more aware of our environment, our interpersonal relationships, and our connection to nature. There are so many areas we need to tackle as media artists, and this is just the beginning.
凯林·布里克 & 芦明一
Celyn Bricker & Faye Lu
A1
如今有越来越多的艺术家开始利用人工智能进行创作,而且随着技术越发普及,这个数字无疑将继续增长。人工智能网络的“机器想象力”已经展示出超越人类想象的可能性(至少是超越我自己的想象力!)。在人工智能圈子也有一些颇具野心的项目,试图创造出完全自主的人工智能艺术家,而关注这会如何发展也是件非常有意思的事。

From the perspective of my work, “computing art” means using the computer as both a tool and a collaborator. When working with AI models, the human artist is acting as a curator of the machine’s experience, and it is the nature of that experience that defines the outcome. In other cases, working with the computer is more like simply outsourcing part of the art production to the machine, which has a historical analogue to an artist working with human assistants.
A2
计算机中物理/实体的二分关系让我想到西方哲学中的身/心二分性。有趣的是,东方思想对这种二分关系的探讨并不集中,也许部分原因在于,西方写作系统中固有的抽象性导致了对抽象领域的思维能力和物理世界完全分离。这种对立关系促发了许多关于人工智能和未来技术的讨论,例如,未来主义者雷·库兹韦尔就预测了一个他能够将自己的意识全部上传到数字领域的时间。我不确定自己是否认同这样的区分方法,无论是从哲学意义还是计算性的层面而言。我主要把计算机的作品理解为实体的和物质的。

The digital/physical dichotomy in computing reminds me of the mind/body dichotomy in Western philosophy. It is interesting that this dichotomy is less of a concern in Eastern thought, perhaps in part owing to the level of abstraction that is inherent in Western systems of writing, encouraging the ideation of abstract realms entirely separate from the physical world. This dichotomy animates many of the discussions regarding AI and future technology, with futurists like Ray Kurzweil anticipating a time when he can totally upload his consciousness into the digital realm. I am not sure I agree on such a distinction in either philosophy or computing. I understand computational work primarily as physical and material.
A3
如今有越来越多的艺术家开始利用人工智能进行创作,而且随着技术越发普及,这个数字无疑将继续增长。人工智能网络的“机器想象力”已经展示出超越人类想象的可能性(至少是超越我自己的想象力!)。在人工智能圈子也有一些颇具野心的项目,试图创造出完全自主的人工智能艺术家,而关注这会如何发展也是件非常有意思的事。

There is a rapidly growing movement of artists working with AI, and this will certainly continue to grow as the technology becomes increasingly accessible. The “machine imagination” of AI networks has already shown itself capable of generating possibilities beyond the human imagination (at the very least beyond my own imaginative capabilities!). There are also some ambitious projects in the AI community trying to create an entirely autonomous AI artist, and it will be interesting to see how that develops.
丹尼尔·罗津
Daniel Rozin
A1
我更倾向于用“计算的”而不是“数字的”来形容我的作品,这会让技术在我作品中的角色更加清晰。虽然我在所有作品中都用到了技术工具,但我这么做并不是因为对这种新工具的痴迷,而是因为它的计算能力。我的艺术实践有两个主要的关注点:图像的构建和感知,以及观众在艺术创作中的参与。这种明确的、动态的互动方式需要作品处于不断变化的状态,并且能展现出相应的认知能力,识别出观众的在场、偏好以及他们周遭的环境。计算工具能够非常有效地提供这种认知和灵活性。当然,在创作过程中运用到计算很重要,但更重要的是在作品中呈现出这些工具的存在。

I appreciate the use of the term computational rather than digital in this context—it adds clarity to the role of technology in my art. Even though I use technological tools to make all my art, I do not do so because of some infatuation with this new tool, but rather because of its ability to compute. In my art practice, I am focused on two main issues: the construction and perception of the image and the viewer’s participation in the creation of the piece. This form of explicit, dynamic interaction requires the work to be ever changing and to exhibit an awareness of the presence and preferences of the viewer and their surroundings. Computational tools very effectively provide for this kind of awareness and flexibility. I of course use computation in the creation of my art, but the more important element is the presence of these tools within the work’s presentation.
A2
我的很多作品都体现着计算过程的物质性。在我的实体作品中,大部分以机械形式展现,你可以看到一个计算性的整体(像素)是如何被一对一地转译成物质性的表现形式。在这些机械学、动力学的作品中,我探索了各种抽象计算在物质方式上的呈现,但是这种对物质性的运用并不局限于我的实体作品中。实际上,就算是在一个平面屏幕上展示,我的很多基于软件的作品都表现出物质性的理念,并且试图通过一种视觉的,有时是立体的方式来呈现一些算法概念,比如像素、遗传算法、选项、数值范围和数字指令。

It is easy to make the case for the materiality of computation in my art. For my physical pieces, the majority of which are mechanical displays, you can see the one-to-one translation of a computational entity, the pixel, into a material representation. In these mechanical, kinetic pieces, I explore the many material embodiments of various computational abstractions. But this use of materiality is not confined to my physical pieces. Indeed, even as they are manifested on a flat screen, many of my software-based works present ideas of materiality and try to create a visual, sometimes volumetric representation of algorithmic notions, such as pixels, genetic algorithms, choice, scale, and digital order.
A3
将艺术和科学技术相对立是一个非常当代的概念。回看过去的几个世纪,我们会发现艺术家们参与了很多科学探索和科技发明,反之科学家们也参与了很多艺术创作。我相信,在计算和技术工具越发无处不在的当下,我们正在见证这种跨界融合的复兴。我使用的很多技术和计算工具都是我的艺术家同伴们开发的。如果去看看一些前沿艺术家的教育经历,你会发现很多人都有科学或工程学的背景。我非常确信,在不远的将来,计算将只是艺术家诸多创作工具中的一种,而通过计算方法创造的艺术将不再需要特别策划的展览才能得以展示。

Defining art as something dichotomous to science and technology is a very contemporary notion. Looking back a few centuries, we find artists engaged in scientific explorations and technological inventions, and vice versa with scientists and art. I believe that, with the ubiquity of computational and technological tools, we are witnessing a resurgence of this integration. Many of the technological and computational tools that I use were developed by fellow artists. Looking at the education of some leading artists, you will find they have a background in science and engineering. There is no doubt in my mind that, in the near future, computation will become just one more tool in the artist’s toolset, and that art implemented via computation will not require specially curated exhibitions.
艾伦·拉斯
Alan Rath
A1
我的创作从未脱离过计算机。在20世纪80年代早期,我就开始在雕塑中引入微处理器来控制它们的行为。对我来说,“计算机艺术”很重要的一点是利用计算机来实现其他方式无法实现的功能。这通常包括快速处理大量数据的能力,或整合多个数据输入并进行实时判断的能力。最终完成的艺术作品不应该只是计算机运算的静态结果,仅呈现为图形或图像,而应该是一种活跃的动态过程的体现,就像运用了机器人或动力学技术的雕塑那样。

I have never worked without computers. In the early 1980s, I began building sculptures that incorporated microprocessors to control their behavior. For me, it is important that “computing art” uses computers to enable capabilities that are not possible through other means. This usually entails using their power to quickly manipulate vast amounts of data or their ability to integrate multiple inputs to make decisions in real time. The final artwork should not be the static result of computer processes, as with graphic images, but rather the embodiment of an active, dynamic process, as in the case of a robotic, kinetic sculpture.
A2
我的作品同时包含了算法元素和物质构造。我认为算法的部分才是真正的艺术作品,虽然没有人能直观地看到。实体雕塑的物质性让算法变得可见,就像人们会在房间里释放烟雾,让原本看不见的激光束得以显形一样。

My works comprise both algorithmic elements and material constructions. I consider the algorithmic portion to be the actual artwork, even though no one can see it. The material instantiation of the sculpture makes visible the algorithm, much like one would introduce smoke into a room to expose an otherwise invisible laser beam.
A3
电子和计算机技术会继续以超乎想象的速度发展,它们在艺术中的运用也会变得像使用颜料一样常见。计算机对于更多人和艺术家来说也会变得更易使用,尤其是那些没有受过技术训练的人。随着计算机逐渐在各种高水平职业中替代人类工作者(比如医生、律师、飞行员),人类想象力和创造力的本质会更加凸显,因为这将成为少数具有市场价值的特质。

Electronic and computer technologies will continue to evolve at an almost unimaginable pace. Their use in art will seem as ordinary as choosing to work with paint. Computers will be more accessible to more people and artists, especially those without technical training. As computers displace high-level professional jobs (e.g., doctors, lawyers, airline pilots), the essences of human imagination and creativity will become more obvious, as they will be among the few traits with market value.
米歇尔·佩桑
Michel Paysant
A1
计算机艺术不是一种体裁、一个门类或一次运动。对我而言,严格意义上并不存在所谓的“计算机艺术”或“数字艺术”。只有一种与时代关联的艺术,带着疑问和怀疑,通过自身的记忆和工具体现着持续变化的世界。计算机只不过是另外一种工具,而数字只不过是一种普遍的新语言。它们的真正力量和意义在于其普世性,以及在互不相干的研究领域之间建立桥梁、让全人类连结在一起的能力。艺术家的角色是去“驯服”这种语言,使其具有普遍意义上的创造性,而不仅仅是消费主义的一个载体。
很多年来,我的艺术方法一直致力于连通艺术和科学。这是在传统与未来主义假想之间的第三条道路,既不恪守陈规,也不迷恋技术进步,而是一个充满连接的世界,一个横贯各方的空间。在我看来,对艺术家唯一重要的是在他们所考虑的每一步行动、施行的每一个操作、创造的每一次呼吸、使用的每一种工具背后,真正的动机是什么。创作一件艺术作品的动机和最终呈现的结果同等重要。
这样看来,非标准化和超越普遍性是考量一件艺术作品的唯一标准。这适用于所有作品,无论是古典的还是数字的,无论它的创作工具是原始的、高度技术化的,还是混合技术的。

Computer art is not a genre, a category, or a movement. To me, there is not, strictly speaking, computer art or digital art. There is just an art that adheres to the times, art of a world that is constantly changing, with its questions, its doubts, its memories, and its tools. The computer is just one more tool. The digital is just a new, common language. Its real strength, its virtue, is its universality, the ability to bridge the most distant fields of research and bring human beings together. The artist’s role is to tame this language, to make it universally creative—not a vector of consumerism.
For many years, my artistic approach has been to bridge art and science. It is a third way that is situated between traditions and futuristic hypotheses, without deference to the past nor fascination with technological progress. It is a world of links, a transverse space. For me, the only thing that matters for an artist is the intention behind each action that they premeditate, each manipulation that they make, each breath that they produce, each tool that they use. The intention that produces a work of art is as important as the formal result.
The non-standard and the extra-ordinary, in this sense, are the only criteria which must be considered in a work of art. This is true regardless of whether the work is classical or digital, or whether the tools that generate it are primitive, highly technological, or technically hybrid.
A2
总体而言,现在的艺术已经不存在任何界限或风格。当代艺术应该是所有灵感来源(跨文化、跨世代等等)的融合,也是所有可使用的工具(原始或高科技)所得到的结果。
我的艺术创作的物质与形式维度,反映了对技术美学的考虑。在我的作品中,虚构性和功能性共存,真实与虚拟并行。这些装置同时承载着实验室与艺术工作室的美学,提示着两者“之间”的空间。

Generally speaking, in today's art, there are no longer any boundaries or styles. Contemporary art must be a mixture of all sources of inspiration (transcultural, intergenerational, etc.) and the result of all available tools (archaic or high tech).
The material and formal dimensions of my art reflect considerations of techno-aesthetics. They are arrangements in which the fictional and the functional coexist, where the real and the virtual are in harmony. These installations recall both the aesthetics of the laboratory and those of the studio, spaces “between.”
A3
新技术只有在帮助我们理解和掌握现实,并激发出新的想象力时才富有趣味。有了新技术,我们有必要创造一种无关指示、统计、规范或标准,而关注梦与诗歌美学的艺术。技术需要被感知所“占据”,就像中国画传统中的笔法一样,我确信想象一场石涛与艾伦·图灵(Alan Turing)对话的可能性。我的“眼球书法”项目描绘了当感知性和高科技充分结合时,数字技术能够完成的事情,与此同时,这仍然指向一种传统的艺术形式。
正如我们即将创造的政治和社会环境一样,艺术必须是某种内在性的结果,必须体现一种面向美与和谐的思想深度。你需要赋予屏幕以深度。我常说如果艺术是无用的,那么我们必须以一种激进的方式反映“无用的有用性”。这也是为何我能够在博物馆、医院、学校、工厂或实验室内不带任何偏见地创作艺术。
技术的未来一定是人。技术必须提供“身体和灵魂”:沉思的身体和敏感的灵魂。

New technologies are only interesting if they both help us understand and apprehend reality and activate a new imaginary. With new technologies, it is necessary to create an art that excludes the demonstrative, the statistical, the normative, and the standard, an art concerned with the aesthetics of dreams and poetry. Technologies have to be “inhabited” by the sensitive, like the brush in the great tradition of Chinese painting. I am sure it is possible to imagine Shitao in dialogue with Alan Turing. My “Eye Calligraphy” project illustrates what the digital can do when operating with an abundance of sensitivity and high tech, while still referring to a traditional art.
Art, like the political and social world that we are going to create, must be the result of an interiority, of a depth of thought oriented toward beauty and collective harmony. You have to give depth to the screen. I often say that if art is useless, we must reflect, with a militant approach, on “the usefulness of uselessness.” This is why I can make art in museums, hospitals, schools, factories, or laboratories without discrimination.
The future of technology must be human. It must offer “body and soul”: a thoughtful body and a sensitive soul.
刘娃
Liu Wa
A1
以电脑计算的机制为灵感或者工作方法的创作。如今计算机已经是当代人必不可少的生活必需品了,所以这个定义想必也会更加有包容性。

Computing art is art that uses computing mechanisms for its inspiration or working method. The computer is now a necessity in contemporary life, so this definition will most likely become more inclusive.
A2
我最重视的是作品表象的非物质性和其内在的物质性之间的冲突,比如脑电图是通过电脑算法生成的,但脑电信号又是通过接触我的头皮而检测出的我的生理信息。 又比如苹果手机的虚拟软件,其物质性体现在郑州富士康工人制作的零件里,以及印度德里废品站回收的电子配件里。我认为这才是完整的计算机艺术。

What I find most important is the conflict between the immateriality of the work’s appearance and its inherent materiality. Electroencephalography, for example, is generated by computer algorithms, but brain waves can only be detected by attaching a sensor to my scalp to detect my physiological information. Another example is the software on an iPhone. Its materiality is embodied in electronic parts, those manufactured by Foxconn workers in Zhengzhou or recycled from electronic gadgets in the junkyards of Delhi. I believe that only then is this a complete work of computing art.
A3
人类历史上,文化创新一直与技术革新紧密相连,所以科技在艺术中的应用肯定会成为常态。当然,技术首先要服务于艺术家的概念,但同时技术的可能性和局限性也会为创作带来灵感。就像颜料堆积的肌理也可以为绘画增添神韵一样。

In human history, cultural innovation has always been closely linked to technological advancement, so the use of technology in art will certainly become the norm. Technology, of course, must first serve the artist’s concept. Yet at the same time, its potentials and limitations can often inspire creativity, like how the accumulation of paint on a canvas can create texture that adds charm to an image.
莱昂内尔·莫拉
Leonel Moura
A1
我们应该把为了获取特定结果而实行的计算,和能够促发创新性的编程区分开来。计算机是一种非凡的工具,当我们把它看作具有思维和创造能力的实体时更是如此。自2001年以来,我的创作一直致力于建造能够自主创作艺术作品的机器人。为了实现这一点,我使用的算法受到生物学的启发,能够模仿蚂蚁的行为。这个算法不是一组命令序列,而是一系列简单的指令。整个过程是自我组织和自发涌现的;每幅绘画都不可预测,独一无二。能够自主创作绘画的机器人开拓了艺术史的新领域:一种生成式的、自制的艺术,且至少在一些方面没有人为的参与。我认为自己创造的是创造者本身,而不是物品或对象。

We should make a distinction between computing to achieve something specific and developing code that generates novelty. Computers are extraordinary tools, even more so if we see them as thinking, creative entities. My project since 2001 has been to build autonomous robots able to create their own artworks. To achieve this, I use a bio-inspired algorithm that simulates the behavior of ants. The algorithm is not a sequence of orders, but a set of simple rules. The process is self-organized and emergent. Each painting is unpredictable and unique. Robots able to create their own paintings open a new field in the history of art: a generative and self-made art that is non-human, at least in part. I see myself as a creator of creators, not of objects.
A2
在我的机器人中会有表演的成分,能够吸引观众并唤起他们的好奇心,最后我们得到一幅独特的绘画。从算法的非物质性(即信息)中,最终产生了实体的艺术作品。这种从非物质向物质的转换也正是生命的奥义。DNA是我们体内的生命算法,也是一切有机体存活的基础。有些人也许会认为,这些表现主义风格的绘画是机器人劳动的结果,但事实上,这些画作是自然主义的,因为它们的创作基础是自然机制。我的作品就是将创造力的自然机制运用在艺术中。

In my robots, there is a performance component that is intriguing and attractive to viewers. In the end, we have a unique painting. The immateriality of the algorithm, which is information, gives rise to a physical artwork. The shift from immaterial to material is at the core of life. The inner algorithm, DNA, is the basis for the existence of all living organisms. Some people may see these expressionist paintings as the result of these robots’ labor. But in fact, they are naturalistic, since they are based on natural mechanisms. My work is applying natural mechanisms of creativity to art.
A3
当下的危机正揭示出我们完全依赖于数字技术的事实。数字技术是我们的命运,也是我们最强大的生存资源。但是数字技术的应用离不开艺术。在这个领域中,创造新事物的过程需要高度的创造性和艺术能力,在设计、概念、内容和使用等各方面都是如此。这也是为何公众会为新科技产品以及APP软件所吸引。
如今的艺术已经与数字技术密不可分,例如艺术与人工智能结合的领域具有无限潜能。艺术不再受制于功能性的需求,可以自由跨界去探索想象力的可能。我和我的同僚们使用新兴技术创作的作品只是一个开始,人类正处在创造力爆发的黎明。

The current crisis reveals that we are totally dependent on digital technologies. They are our destiny and our most powerful resource for survival. But digital technology applications do not exist without art. In this field, the process of making something innovative demands a lot of creativity and artistry, in design, concept, content, use, and more. That is why most gadgets and applications are so attractive to the general public.
The art of today is inseparable from digital technologies. For example, the potential to combine art and artificial intelligence is very promising. Art is not constrained by functionality and is free to explore imagination without boundaries. Works that use advanced digital technologies, by me and my colleagues, are just a start. We are at the dawn of an explosion of creativity.
夸尤拉
Quayola
A1
技术在我作品中的角色不仅是工具,而更像是合作者。我喜欢和作品中使用的技术建立亲密的、实验性的关系。我们在工作室里设计的系统可以和乐器相类比,所以每件作品都是与这些系统/乐器进行实验互动而得到的结果。创作中的计算过程不仅只是一系列运算,也是作品对主题进行批判性探索的一部分。因此,我的创作实践围绕着技术展开,也呈现着技术本身,从更整体的层面而言,是研究技术在人与周遭环境的动态关系中的角色。

The role of technology in my work is not just a tool, but rather more like a collaborator. I am interested in developing intimate and experimental relationships with the technologies used in my projects. The systems we build in the studio can be compared to musical instruments, so every work is the result of experimental interactions with such systems/instruments. Computing is not merely a set of calculations, but also part of the subject that is critically explored in the work. My practice therefore revolves around technology and presents itself, on a general level, as a study of its role in the relational dynamics of man with his surroundings.
A2
在我的实践中,数字和实体之间的边界非常模糊。如影像之类本性就是数字化的作品,通过装置的形式呈现时,就会产生一种非常具体的物理体验——它们的实体呈现方式是正确感知这类作品的一个关键因素。此外,声音的作用及其与视觉要素的同步将这些数字制品转换成了可触及的实物对象。另外,我的实体作品也同样可以被看作是数字的,因为它们是全自动计算的结果。我的雕塑并不依靠人力劳动而雕刻完成,而是通过机械控制,所以它们也是我和数字系统互动的结果。

In my practice, the boundaries between digital and physical are very blurred. Works that are digital in nature, like videos, become very physical experiences when presented as installations—their physical manifestation is a crucial component of a correct perception of such works. Also, the role of sound and its deep synchronization with the visual aspect transform these digital artifacts into tangible objects. On the other hand, the physical works that I produce can also be considered digital, as they are the result of fully automated, computational strategies. My sculptures are not crafted via human labor, but through robotics means, so they are the result of my interactions with digital systems.
A3
思考技术在未来可以为艺术家提供什么,这无疑是令人振奋的话题,除此之外,我尤为感兴趣的是这些技术将如何改变我们对世界的感知,以及它们接下来会如何影响我们的想象力。对我来说,问题不在于技术本身,而是我们与技术的关系。那些为某种特定目的而创造的技术,我很好奇艺术家将如何扰乱它们,并将其转化为一种艺术表达的工具。

Apart from what technology might offer to artists in the future, which will undoubtedly be very exciting, I am particularly interested in how such technologies will change our perception of the world, and therefore how they will impact our imagination. For me, it is not about technology in itself, but about our relationship with it. I am curious how artists will disrupt technology that is made for a specific purpose and transform it into a tool for artistic expression.
杨泳梁
Yang Yongliang
A1
我们的创作工具随着时代变迁发生着变化,所以在我看来所谓“计算机艺术”只是在使用媒介与技术上的分类,就像很多年以前摄影被归入了艺术。但是这种分类方式还是相当粗放的,就如同简单称作“绘画艺术”一样。回到我的作品来看,我的作品似乎很难只用“计算机艺术”来分类,因为我的创作方式结合了古典绘画、摄影、数字摄影和摄像,展示方式有时又会结合装置。如果说硬要用一种艺术形式来概括的话,多媒体艺术会更接近一些。

Our creative tools change with the times, so for me, “computing art” is just a classification based on medium and technology. It is similar to how photography was subsumed into the category of fine art many years ago. Yet this classification is rather broad, akin to the simple category of “painterly arts.” Looking at it from the perspective of my work, it seems difficult to just use the term “computing art,” because my practice combines classical painting, photography, digital photography, and video, and its display at times incorporates installation. If one insists upon choosing a single art form to summarize my work, multi-media art would be closer.
A2
随着数字媒体和数字技术在我们生活中无处不在的渗入,我们的时代逐渐从物质化转变成数字虚拟化,我们从一个只有现场音乐会的时代,进入了黑胶唱片,再经历短暂过渡的数字CD时代和MP3时代,现在越来越多的人放弃了珍藏体积沉重的黑胶唱片,而选择在云端可以无限共享的数字串流音频。或许有些人不愿意接受,但是这个趋势无法避免。因此在这个大背景下,作品的物质性和虚拟数字的特性也被提出来,作品的物质性第一次受到了巨大的挑战。我认为这只是一个时间问题和人类慢慢接受的过程而已。在作品本身以数字方式制作的前提下,在我看来艺术的最可贵之处是和观众的内在精神交流,那么物质性和虚拟性又有什么关系呢?我对此保持一种相对开放的态度。

With the ubiquity of digital media and technology in everyday life, we gradually transitioned from a materialized to a digitized age. We went from a time of live concerts to one of vinyl records, and then we quickly cycled through the CD and MP3 eras. More people have begun to eschew heavy vinyl records, instead preferring to stream music on online platforms, where files can be shared with ease. Perhaps some are unwilling to accept this, but the trend is inevitable. This premise raises the issue of the materiality of artworks and the distinctive qualities of digital media. For the first time, the materiality of art is presented with a serious challenge. I think this is just a matter of time—the slow process of humanity accepting this change. With digitally produced artworks, the most valuable aspect, for me, is their inner, spiritual communication with the audience. So what is the relationship between materiality and virtuality? I maintain a relatively open attitude toward this issue.
A3
技术往往是一把双刃剑,新技术让作品的观看维度和参与方式拥有了更多可能,但是同时这种强烈的感受性也会过于强化体验感,而丧失了与观众深层次的精神交流。因此,在作品中选择合适的技术和凸显技术的比例则变得至关重要。随着技术的不断革新,最合适的技术创作的作品才会经久不衰,否则极容易被新技术产生的技术更新迭代。我的预测是未来会出现更多形式的作品,改变我们的观看方式甚至思维方式。

Technology is often a double-edged sword. New technologies create more possibilities for viewing and participating in a work. Yet at the same time, this overwhelming sensibility might put too much emphasis on the work’s experiential qualities, at the expense of a deeper spiritual exchange with the audience. Therefore, it is paramount to select technologies suitable to the work itself, and to determine the degree to which those technologies are conspicuous within it. As technological innovation continues apace, only works that use technology appropriately will endure; otherwise, they will be replaced in the next wave of technological advancement. My prediction is that many new forms of work will emerge, altering our modes of seeing and even our ways of thinking.
陆扬
Lu Yang
A1
计算机对我的创作来说就是一个工具,是一个非常便捷、快速、高效和方便使用的工具,但核心内容好像和计算机这个工具没什么关系。我也不太懂计算机艺术该怎么定义,我只管自己用好用的工具创作。定义这些范围和标题的是艺术史家、艺术评论家和研究者家的事吧?

In my work, the computer is a tool, a tool that is very quick, efficient, and convenient to use. Yet the core content of my work does not really have anything to do with computers. I do not really know how to define computing art. I am only focused on the tools that I find useful. Isn’t it for art historians, critics, and researchers to define these categories and titles?
A2
这些作品作为数字媒介,和其他数字媒介一样可以被复制、备份,拥有很多数字副本,如果基于我们现在的数字化时代基础,这些作品的保存方式和时间长度可能要比传统物质作品更为方便,也更容易传播。直到最后一个储存介质的损毁,作品才会跟着损毁,既然也是基于储存介质这个物质形式的,那也会遵循“成住坏空”的自然法则吧。

These works are like any other digital media, in that they can be duplicated, backed up, or exist in multiple. In our digital age, it is often easier to conserve and distribute this kind of work than it is with traditional artworks, and they will likely last longer. Only when the storage medium containing these works is destroyed are the works themselves also gone. In addition, as they are rooted in the material form of the storage medium, they will also follow the natural principle of “formation, existence, destruction, and emptiness” [the four states of phenomena in Buddhist cosmology].
A3
我个人对科技技术的看法,就是这只是出生在这个时代的人们自然而然会去使用的工具而已。这些工具使我得到信息的途径更广阔、更迅速,使我完成作品的效率更高,手段更直观,就是这样而已。所以我不必去跟这些工具较真、去抵抗这些工具,或者因为这个工具太酷炫而拼命追逐它们,硬逼着自己去使用,标榜自己很时髦,走在了时代的前沿。同样,我喜欢一切可以打动我的作品核心,而不是这些作品创作过程中使用的工具。

My personal view of technology is that it is merely a tool, one that is used naturally by people born in this era. These tools offer me new paths to obtain information more quickly and from a broader range of sources, making my work more efficient and intuitive, nothing more than that. Therefore, when it comes to working with these tools, I do not need to take myself too seriously. I do not resist their help, nor do I chase after them merely because they are trendy. I do not force myself to use them just to brand myself as a fashionable artist working on the cutting edge of the era. In the same way, I like everything that gets to the core of my practice, not just the tools I employ in the creative process.
徐文恺
aaajiao
A1
今天的“计算机艺术”早已从“使用一种设备工具或者使用特定的运算方法来创作”中解脱,如果我们可以把数据和媒介看作归一的存在,那会是“一切都是数据流”(来自响应式编程的一句口号),而计算机艺术可以是当我们理解上述状况下的艺术。

Today’s “computing art” was long ago disentangled from any specific device or operational method. If we see data and media as unified, then “everything is a stream” (a mantra for practitioners of responsive programming). Computing art is art made with an understanding of the above description.
A2
我觉得可以说这些作品有物质性,也可以说没有,讨论物质与否不再是我和很多人关心的问题,或者说大家已经解决了这个问题。我们今天还在对物质性发问,源于物质的价值属性,而价值部分正是很多艺术家正在进行的工作,即如何贯穿地赋予和理解数字存在的价值。

I think you can say that there is a materiality to these works, or you can say that there isn’t. For me and many others, it is no longer a matter of concern to discuss whether these works are material or not, or, to put it another way, the problem has already been solved. When we explore materiality today, it is more rooted in the value that we attribute to material. This value component is what many artists are exploring in their work—how to thoroughly understand the value of these digital existences, and how to endow them with value.
A3
我们不能再分开讨论技术和艺术。尤其是在简体中文的语境下,我们往往倾向于把技术和艺术对立起来讨论。而想象力和创造力是人类共情后协作的产物,这种将技术和艺术长期互为参照物的讨论,会间离我们对更多想象力和创造力的追求。

We can no longer discuss technology and art separately. Especially in the simplified Chinese discourse, we often tend to discuss technology and art as a binary. Yet imagination and creativity are the products of cooperation made possible by human empathy. Discussions that take art and technology as two objects that merely reference one another over the long term end up obstructing our pursuit of imagination and creativity.
林科
Lin Ke
A1
哇!困难,我从来没有想过给计算机艺术下定义。
可能是使用计算机做创作的艺术吧。
计算机作为工具甚至像一个助手。

Whoa! It’s difficult—I have never thought of defining computing art.
Perhaps it is using computers to make art.
The computer as a tool, or even an assistant.
A2
这是一个我最近也在探索的主题。关于数字作品的物质性。
人们简单地把数字作品和物质性的作品区分开,可能认为数字作品是虚拟的?我认为数字作品也具有自己的物质属性。我正在制作的绘画项目,是关于这个思考的。我通过控制参数在机器上的转化,将计算机中处于模拟态的绘画,制作成具有真实物质性的实体作品。这个过程很让我惊讶,原本在计算机里的观看,是通过屏幕的背光,肉眼看到一个结果(色彩),现在它来到了真实的物质世界里,物质世界里的光参与其中,变成只有人类肉眼才可以看到的唯一对象。照片再也拍不出来了,或者拍出来的也只是机器看到的结果。

This is a theme that I have been exploring recently—the materiality of digital works.
People simplistically differentiate digital and physical works, perhaps thinking that digital works are virtual? I believe that digital works also have their own materiality. The drawing project I am working on now considers this topic. By controlling the conversion of parameters in a machine, I take drawings in a virtual state on a computer and make them into physical artworks with a real materiality. This process surprises me. The work is first seen on a computer through the backlight of the monitor, and the naked eye sees only one result (color). When the work enters material reality, with the involvement of natural light, it transforms into a singular object that can only be observed by the human eye. A photograph cannot capture it exactly, or rather, a photograph would only be the product of what the machine sees.
A3
我有一个对想象力的想象。对于我来说,想象力就是一层叠加在现实之上的图层。
我们人类用肉眼观看世界,我们看到一个物质层面的真实世界,而每个人获得的投影内容都是不同的。在这个时候,当我看到了一个附加在这层现实之上的图层,那个只有我看到的部分,我想那就是我的想象力。现在可以用新技术实现我看到的图层,然后再给我之外的人看到。这就是我认为的想象力和创造力将如何被使用。

I have this way of imagining imagination. For me, imagination is an image layer superimposed on reality.
When we humans observe the world with our physical eyes, we see the real world on a material level, yet the projected content received by each person is different. The moment I spot the image layer atop this reality, that component that is only visible to me, I know that this is my imagination. Now I can use new technologies to realize this image layer and show it to people outside of myself. This is how I believe imagination and creativity are used.
费亦宁 & 官承翰
Fei Yining & Chuck Kuan
A1
在创作/制作过程中,一定程度地使用到了算法相关技术的作品。

Works that incorporate algorithm-based technology into their creative/production process to a certain extent.
A2
在这个技术全方位渗透生活的时代,广义的物质性已不仅仅指向特定的物理性, 当创作、存档、传播、展示作品的技术平台的趋于同质时,格林伯格式的媒介特异性逐渐变得模糊。如艺术史家斯芬·吕提肯所言,“媒介不仅是工具或机器”,也同时是“对(自身)惯例的层层堆叠,以及萦绕在我们周围的记忆” 。在很多时候,计算机或算法创作中的物质性是流动的、非固定的,使其可以在不同的场域和时空“借尸还魂”,在不同的形式中重组框架而获得新的物质性。它既是暂时的、短暂的,又同时是恒久的(不同于传统物质的物理损耗)。再到此次展出的CG影像来说,作品内部在视觉上还另存有一种拟像层面上的“虚空”物质性(比如屏幕中的鱼缸里无限循环的海浪物理模拟)。

In an age when technology has seeped into all aspects of our lives, materiality, in a general sense, no longer refers only to a specific kind of physicality. When the technical platforms for art making, archiving, distribution, and display become homogenous, the Greenbergian notion medium-specificity becomes hazy. “Media are not just tools or machines,” notes art historian Sven Lütticken, “but also layerings of [their] conventions, and memories [that] haunt us.” In many instances, the materiality of computing or algorithmic art is fluid and unstable, allowing it to take new forms in different fields and spaces, and to restructure frameworks and attain new materialities within these different forms. This art is temporary and transient, yet also permanent at the same time (differing from the physical deterioration of traditional materials). With our graphical video in this exhibition, visually the work has a kind of “hollow” materiality on the level of the simulacrum (for example, the physical simulation of an infinite loop of waves in the fish tank on the screen).
A3
一方面,大数据运算可能会对注意力经济造成更彻底的分层剥削,将每个人的注意力进行分割以及引导,从根本上“驱使”人们的想象力,算法裹挟着人们进一种螺旋/循环,将每个人封入自己的“信息气泡”中:世界图景坍缩在眼前,却只能看到自己的倒影。另一方面,是否会有一个“艺术—技术”奇点存在?在那个奇点之后,科技成为了想象力与创造力本身,朝着人脑越来越无法理解与处理的方向奔驰而去。

On the one hand, big-data algorithms may exacerbate exploitation in the attention economy. It can group and direct attention, fundamentally controlling people’s imaginations. Algorithms lock us into a kind of spiral or cycle, sealing everyone into their own information bubbles. Our world-picture collapses into what is in front of our eyes, and we can only see our own reflections. On the other hand, will there be a singularity for art and technology? After such a singularity, technology will itself become imagination and creativity, marching toward a future that the human mind cannot understand or engage.